First, be smart from the beginning... September 24, 2015 10:27 AM   Subscribe

I just wanted to point out that scarabic's body disposal advice took a star turn in the pilot episode of Scream Queens.

Lea Michele's character advised verbatim to "Pulverize all teeth, burn off fingerprints, and disfigure the face." and then quickly ran through a significant portion of scarabic's advice.
posted by leotrotsky to MetaFilter-Related at 10:27 AM (83 comments total) 6 users marked this as a favorite

Cool!

I wonder how many actual murderers have followed that advice so far. I'm not gonna Google "how to dispose of a body" while at work but I'd imagine that thread is one of the top answers. so whether you're a TV writer or a murderer it's probably the answer you're gonna use.
posted by bondcliff at 10:39 AM on September 24, 2015 [2 favorites]


I always wondered how that worked: do TV writers read the internet and use other peoples' ideas? Are they allowed to do that, or can they only come up with their own ideas and not read the internet? The body disposal advice is 11 years old now; does that make a difference? Wasn't there some flap about some ideas on a Simpsons message board that turned up in an episode? scarabic should get paid, darn it!
posted by Melismata at 10:42 AM on September 24, 2015


do TV writers read the internet and use other peoples' ideas?

they would never!
posted by Hoopo at 10:44 AM on September 24, 2015 [32 favorites]


Are they allowed to do that, or can they only come up with their own ideas and not read the internet?

that seems like it could be both impossible to prove and enforce (I know authors and such have to say they don;t read fanfic of their work for legal reasons but that always seemed like a fig leaf/)
posted by The Whelk at 10:48 AM on September 24, 2015


Didn't this same question come up while Breaking Bad was airing?

That answer is just common sense, it occurs naturally to anyone who puts a little thinking into how to disp—not that I've— well, you get where I'm going with this.
posted by carsonb at 10:57 AM on September 24, 2015 [2 favorites]


There's a difference between taking story ideas or prove versus facts. See the people who sued the DaVinci code guy. They presented their book as nonfiction therefore didn't have a leg to stand on. Scarabic's advice is similarly presented as nonfiction.

Same with all the stuff Alan Moore took from Stephen Knight for From Hell. It's research.

Now, if they copied it word for word, that's a little different.
posted by Bookhouse at 11:03 AM on September 24, 2015 [1 favorite]


I know what you mean, Bookhouse, but I'll be forever amused that the reason scarabic would not be able to sue the producers of Scream Queens is because he's describing something he's actually done.
posted by MCMikeNamara at 11:17 AM on September 24, 2015 [5 favorites]


Well I mean aside from anything else it's just good advice.
posted by the uncomplicated soups of my childhood at 11:23 AM on September 24, 2015


If future episodes of Scream Queens include dialog lines of "DTMFA" and "Can I eat this?", then you'll know.
posted by oneswellfoop at 11:24 AM on September 24, 2015 [17 favorites]


Don't overthink a plate of entrails Becky
posted by The Whelk at 11:38 AM on September 24, 2015 [5 favorites]


Please tell me someone else said "Okay, awkward" after.
posted by EmpressCallipygos at 11:52 AM on September 24, 2015 [42 favorites]


It's not perfect advice.

One shouldn't use bleach to dilute or remove blood. Especially not in a bathroom, since ceramic tubs, tiles and grout are porous enough to potentially retain evidence. One should probably know the difference between chlorine and oxygen bleach, too.

It's probably not the best idea to risk dumping even a carefully dismembered body into sewer pipes, either. Not even a house's sewer main. Since that's how they found out that Dr. Harvey Lothringer had tried to get rid of poor Barbara Lofrumento back in the early 60's.
posted by zarq at 12:07 PM on September 24, 2015 [6 favorites]


Incineration is so 1975.
posted by clavdivs at 12:09 PM on September 24, 2015


"and which he was credited for."

right?
posted by boo_radley at 12:15 PM on September 24, 2015


It's still early in the season. We don't know that scarabic isn't the one pulling the strings yet.
posted by Etrigan at 12:24 PM on September 24, 2015 [10 favorites]


Ask.MetaFilter: Be smart from the very beginning
posted by Going To Maine at 12:38 PM on September 24, 2015


I'm not gonna Google "how to dispose of a body" while at work but I'd imagine that thread is one of the top answers.

fourth on ddg.
posted by andrewcooke at 12:43 PM on September 24, 2015 [2 favorites]


Honey badger don't need to be smart from the beginning. Honey badger just eats whatever's left.
posted by Namlit at 1:04 PM on September 24, 2015 [2 favorites]


zarq, did you realize that the page you linked to is on an anti-abortion website?
posted by ocherdraco at 1:26 PM on September 24, 2015


One should probably know the difference between chlorine and oxygen bleach, too.

Ummm... can we talk about the May 9, 2013 comment on that "difference" link?
posted by sparklemotion at 1:28 PM on September 24, 2015 [5 favorites]


Not even a house's sewer main.

scarabic addressed what went wrong there - firstly, the guy in your link sounds like he did a rush job, with people around and people looking for him and his patient. scarabic starts out saying that you need some time to get it right. Because yeah, you'll clog a drain by dumping 100 pounds of little bits and pieces down it at once. Secondly, with a blender like scarabic recommended I suspect you'd get smaller pieces than the "couple inches" described in the article. Third, he suggests flushing the lines with water periodically to get things flowing. And he actually says it is a risk of sewer blockages and don't try it unless you are comfortable that you know how to clean the blockage out yourself.

If you had the time, ground it up enough, and introduced it into the sewer slowly and in combination with water, I think the risk would be fairly small unless your sewer line had low grade, ponding, or some other deficiencies.
posted by Hoopo at 1:37 PM on September 24, 2015


Thread seems like it needs Mitchell and Webb's lazy TV writers
posted by thetortoise at 2:06 PM on September 24, 2015 [2 favorites]


First, be smart from the very beginning. Change the word order, substitute synonyms, and don't quote whole sentences. Forcing an email subpoena to establish plagiarism (if it ever comes to that) might introduce the legal/forensic hurdle that saves your ass down the line.
posted by RogerB at 2:14 PM on September 24, 2015 [25 favorites]


First, be smart from the very beginning. Change the word order, substitute synonyms, and don't quote whole sentences.

Seriously.

Unless this was a shibboleth specifically for mefites.

Is there something we should know?
posted by Sophie1 at 2:20 PM on September 24, 2015


I've come around to the opinion that the best way to dispose of a body is to start by printing out a bunch of "Free BBQ Taste Test!" fliers and going from there.
posted by robocop is bleeding at 2:24 PM on September 24, 2015 [7 favorites]


Does anyone have a transcript from the show?
posted by ODiV at 2:31 PM on September 24, 2015


> "Unless this was a shibboleth specifically for mefites."

"Hey, chief. That murder site was unusually clean... White background... Very professional. Fortunately we have cameras"

(WINKING AT CAMERA INTENSIFIES)
posted by boo_radley at 2:46 PM on September 24, 2015 [31 favorites]


If the next victim receives a mysterious banjo as a gift, you'll know.
posted by thetortoise at 2:50 PM on September 24, 2015 [15 favorites]


"So you're saying that based on the wounds you examined during the autopsy, this murder weapon, it vibrates?"
posted by Rock Steady at 2:52 PM on September 24, 2015 [7 favorites]


do TV writers read the internet and use other peoples' ideas?

Just be happy they are using ideas for a change.
posted by srboisvert at 3:23 PM on September 24, 2015 [5 favorites]


“The sentence ‘WHY?’ was written on the wall in what appeared to be refried kidney beans.”
posted by Going To Maine at 3:33 PM on September 24, 2015 [2 favorites]


*spoiler alert*

In a later episode, there is an attempt to follow the body disposal advice, but it is too arduous a task, and gets botched.

Says one frustrated character to another: "Let's just dump the motherfucker already."
posted by Kabanos at 3:37 PM on September 24, 2015 [23 favorites]


Refried kidneys first. Let's be smart.

Then we can overthink the beans (cue: "why?") until there will be a sentence.
posted by Namlit at 3:39 PM on September 24, 2015


Refried kidneys first.

This isn’t Hannibal
posted by Going To Maine at 3:56 PM on September 24, 2015 [1 favorite]


Melismata: I always wondered how that worked: do TV writers read the internet and use other peoples' ideas? Are they allowed to do that, or can they only come up with their own ideas and not read the internet?

Ask Aaron Sorkin.
posted by tzikeh at 3:58 PM on September 24, 2015 [2 favorites]


Okay. Awkward.
posted by Stan Chin at 6:30 PM on June 13, 2004


Still in my top 10 of greatest things I've ever seen on the Internet.
posted by Cool Papa Bell at 4:10 PM on September 24, 2015 [11 favorites]


I've come around to the opinion that the best way to dispose of a body is to start by printing out a bunch of "Free BBQ Taste Test!" fliers and going from there.

Portrait or Landscape? Color? What font?
posted by Brandon Blatcher at 4:24 PM on September 24, 2015


It was said in the last meta about that comment, but i really don't find it funny and am kind of tired of it constantly being brought up as some "ha ha" thing. It actually bugs me a lot that it's a "Famous MeFi Comment" or whatever.
posted by emptythought at 4:39 PM on September 24, 2015 [3 favorites]


I'm not gonna Google "how to dispose of a body" while at work You might get a raise and a promotion to an office you never knew existed.
posted by Mr. Yuck at 5:11 PM on September 24, 2015 [2 favorites]


I'm just disappointed that John Kenneth Fisher's advice wasn't used.
posted by duffell at 5:11 PM on September 24, 2015 [1 favorite]


Just curious emptythought, is it the content, the context, or something else? Like is it better as dialog in some schlocky comedy/horror TV show? Or just violence as entertainment bothers you in general?

That's a lot of questions, so I want to be clear that's not meant as an interrogation. I'm just wondering and thought that the contrast in mediums (comment vs. TV show) was interesting.
posted by ODiV at 5:14 PM on September 24, 2015


This is the previous thread this summer where several people said they're not crazy about this comment being so lauded (since it kind of ironically glorifies the gruesome, as if gruesome things don't really happen, but of course, they do).
posted by LobsterMitten (staff) at 5:17 PM on September 24, 2015 [1 favorite]


I remember reading that now, yeah, thanks. I guess I just never connected the comment directly with gruesome violence in popular media. Obviously we're not a monolith, but stuff like Hannibal and Game of Thrones is also pretty well liked here too. I just got curious if objections transcend medium or if they're not really related.
posted by ODiV at 5:37 PM on September 24, 2015


My son and I were destined to be first responders to a series of bloody or fiery accidents this year. I needed his hands and he saw some horrible things. His therapist says that when he says "At least I don't have a piece of rebar through my head," It is ok.

I don't think he is glorifying the gruesome by joking about it. It is a way of processing. It does not mean you have no sympathy or are disrespecting the dead.
posted by Mr. Yuck at 5:48 PM on September 24, 2015 [7 favorites]


[…] they don't read fanfic of their work for legal reasons […]

I can guarantee you this is not why authors decide to forgo reading fanfic of their own work. Copyright would have absolutely no protections in place to prevent an author from using their own intellectual property. They don't read the fanfic because it's bad. Seriously, George R. R. Martin isn't taking a pass on the Hodor/Sansa fanfic market because he's afraid of being sued.

Even in the hypothetical world where a professional writer deigns to rip off a fanfic writer's story there would be no recourse to the weaver of the wayward tales. None. Anyone can be sued for anything, but I am beating you'd be hard pressed to find a fanfic writer that prevailed in such a case.

Now, you could convince me this would be utterly humiliating to a professional writer. Imagine that shame. Here you wrote a book good enough to inspire others to rip you off, but for some reason you lack the ability to do it a second time, so you mine those you inspired not for inspiration, but for their actual work. You are never stepping out of the house again once that comes out.
posted by cjorgensen at 8:18 PM on September 24, 2015


ocherdraco: zarq, did you realize that the page you linked to is on an anti-abortion website?

Shit. No, I didn't pay close enough attention to the URL/contents. Just googled, skimmed and linked.

Ugh. That was stupid of me. I apologize. :(

This New York Times article explains what Lothringer did, without the misogynistic, anti-choice rhetoric.
posted by zarq at 8:27 PM on September 24, 2015


posted by Melismata Wasn't there some flap about some ideas on a Simpsons message board that turned up in an episode? scarabic should get paid, darn it!

You might be thinking of the time jokes from MetaFilter were used without credit in User Friendly.
posted by mattdidthat at 8:28 PM on September 24, 2015


[…] they don't read fanfic of their work for legal reasons […]

I can guarantee you this is not why authors decide to forgo reading fanfic of their own work.

Many authors/creators/etc have said exactly that though. Not sure how much your guarantee is worth vs. their actual statements.
posted by ODiV at 8:35 PM on September 24, 2015 [1 favorite]


I wonder how many actual murderers have followed that advice so far

I'd think zero is a pretty safe guess. "Slowly disintegrate it with tools you find around the house" isn't really a plan you need a how-to guide for (and would probably be terrible advice for almost anyone hoping to escape detection for murder). The thing was a bit of performance art, there's really nothing particularly pragmatic about it.
posted by nanojath at 9:04 PM on September 24, 2015 [1 favorite]


Here you wrote a book good enough to inspire others to rip you off, but for some reason you lack the ability to do it a second time, so you mine those you inspired not for inspiration, but for their actual work.

Next time on Black Mirror
posted by bleep at 9:10 PM on September 24, 2015


LobsterMitten: "This is the previous thread this summer where several people said they're not crazy about this comment being so lauded (since it kind of ironically glorifies the gruesome, as if gruesome things don't really happen, but of course, they do)."

Are you yourself expressing this sentiment? If not, I'm not sure I understand why you are revisiting this.
posted by Conrad Cornelius o'Donald o'Dell at 9:51 PM on September 24, 2015


I thought it was pretty clearly in response to my comment, directly above it. (maybe not?)
posted by ODiV at 9:54 PM on September 24, 2015 [1 favorite]


kind of ironically glorifies the gruesome

the problem with irony is that it rusts.

So what's the difference between mefites and TV writers?

They have cameras.
posted by mwhybark at 10:21 PM on September 24, 2015 [1 favorite]


Just curious emptythought, is it the content, the context, or something else? Like is it better as dialog in some schlocky comedy/horror TV show? Or just violence as entertainment bothers you in general?

Context, i guess?

If it was on some shlocky show or stated by like, Dwight Schrute it wouldn't bother me. But this comment has been seemingly taken completely seriously by tiresome redditors(who repost it to get +2000 and gold) and gone many other places off site where it was also presented in a fairly different light.

It already just kinda hit me weird here. Somehow it is a completely different thing when it's like hannibal(which also sort of creeped me out and bugged me?)

Violence rhetorically, or in fiction, or on tv/in movies usually doesn't bother me. There's just something overly earnest and edgelord about how i've seen that comment presented and even it's original presentation and bugs me. It reminds me of some of the worst cringey short story writing assignments i had to endure in high school in tone and presentation.

I think it might actually be one of those "I don't hate the band, but i hate the fans" things. The original comment didn't bother me that much ages ago, but every time i see it again it's bugged me more.
posted by emptythought at 11:02 PM on September 24, 2015 [5 favorites]


ODiV: "Many authors/creators/etc have said exactly that though."

"Hey, Mr. Famous Author, have you read my fanfic! Your books inspired me so much, I've already written a thousand pages, and I'm just getting to the really exciting stuff. You've gotta read it, you'll love it!"
"Look, I'm sorry, I'd truly love to read your fanfic, but I can't read it, for legal reasons. The choice is out of my hands."
posted by Bugbread at 12:16 AM on September 25, 2015 [4 favorites]


Has anyone heard from scarabic since 2012?
posted by Cranberry at 12:31 AM on September 25, 2015 [2 favorites]


Bugbread: I'm not saying that doesn't happen, but do you really think that's going on here, for example?
posted by ODiV at 1:01 AM on September 25, 2015


So I'm sitting on a train right now and reading the links above, and I have the page about using bleach to destroy evidence up, which has a large headline. And two uniformed police just walked past and one of them did a hilariously obvious double take. (I'm white, though, so no one got shot or arrested).
posted by lollusc at 1:53 AM on September 25, 2015 [8 favorites]


"Free BBQ Taste Test!" fliers

OMG! robocop is bleeding is Anthony Wong!
posted by GenjiandProust at 2:21 AM on September 25, 2015


The chop-up-and-put-down-the-drains method is what Denis Nilsen used.

Mind you, that's how he got caught, so.

(I was also going to drop a comment about Fred and Rose West, but then I read the page I was going to link to and it took all the fun out of it. Between them and the Moors murderers, England really does have the vilest serial killers.)
posted by Grangousier at 2:36 AM on September 25, 2015


Here's a Bernie Wrightson comic book story where the "chop up and put down the drain" method didn't work out too well. [Warning: nudity, violence and gore].
posted by marxchivist at 5:06 AM on September 25, 2015 [1 favorite]


As a second to emptythought's opinion ...

The comment's 11 years old. In internet years, it's like your parents joking about giving kids swirlies back in the 50s AGAIN and all you can think is, "you guys might have found that funny back in the day, but it's pretty disturbing."
posted by kimberussell at 6:25 AM on September 25, 2015 [1 favorite]


I disagree, it as funny and disturbing today as yesterday.
posted by clavdivs at 7:38 AM on September 25, 2015 [1 favorite]


In fact, even if the shady criminal washed a bloodstained item of clothing 10 times, these chemicals could still reveal blood.

Criminals, take note! Wash every item of your murderclothes eleven times
posted by Greg Nog at 7:39 AM on September 25, 2015 [5 favorites]


If you're looking around the MetaTalk thread and can't tell who the parent rehashing old stories is...
posted by ODiV at 7:57 AM on September 25, 2015


I think there something I read on MeFi at some point that suspected that procedural with a big emphasis on physical evidence (e.g. CSI) would show criminals successfully covering up evidence with methods that definitely don't work IRL to make criminals more likely to fuck up? I think it was in the context of either CSI making a lot of people interested in doing forensics until they realize it's not like CSI or something.

Or I could be making it up entirely.
posted by griphus at 9:53 AM on September 25, 2015


Or I think maybe the context was actual forensics people having to deal with bleach-soaked crime scenes after CSI started airing.
posted by griphus at 9:53 AM on September 25, 2015


Even in the hypothetical world where a professional writer deigns to rip off a fanfic writer's story there would be no recourse to the weaver of the wayward tales. None. Anyone can be sued for anything, but I am beating you'd be hard pressed to find a fanfic writer that prevailed in such a case.

If we're talking TV rather than book publishing, I've always heard the main reason why you never include a spec script for the show you're trying to be hired for with the rest of your spec scripts is because the showrunners can't read it for legal reasons. I highly doubt they're making this up to avoid low quality iterations of their own work. This is obviously a different ownership structure than you'd find in book publishing, but since we were talking about TV show ideas in the first place, figured it was worth a mention.
posted by dinty_moore at 9:55 AM on September 25, 2015 [1 favorite]


There's def. a lot of places that do serialized fiction (comics, TV shows, etc.) that have a very strict "no unsolicited scripts" policy specifically to avoid being accused of plagiarism.
posted by griphus at 9:58 AM on September 25, 2015 [1 favorite]


If we're talking TV rather than book publishing, I've always heard the main reason why you never include a spec script for the show you're trying to be hired for with the rest of your spec scripts is because the showrunners can't read it for legal reasons.

I'm a TV writer. This is 100% correct. I've refused to read friend's spec scripts when they were for a show I worked on. It is entirely for legal reasons.
posted by Bookhouse at 10:03 AM on September 25, 2015


I'd say getting back to scarabic's original advice, the actual first thing to figure out is a reason for having 10-20 gallons of bleach stocked up.
posted by sammyo at 11:21 AM on September 25, 2015


I think it was in the context of either CSI making a lot of people interested in doing forensics until they realize it's not like CSI or something.

The only thing I can think of is how contemporary juries are really dumb about DNA evidence and lack thereof because it's such an easy black & white thing on the teevee.
posted by shakespeherian at 11:22 AM on September 25, 2015 [1 favorite]


...figure out is a reason for having 10-20 gallons of bleach stocked up.

Being smart from the very beginning involves owning a laundromat.
posted by griphus at 11:25 AM on September 25, 2015 [1 favorite]


reason for having 10-20 gallons of bleach stocked up.

Normal bleach is 6% sodium hypochlorite solution. Pool bleachchrlorine is 12% sodium hypochlorite solution, and usually stored in 10l or 20l containers similar to a jerry can (yellow, not red). Twice as concentrated and currently I've got 25 liters in my pool hut and have enough containers for 50l of bleach. Plus, I usually keep another few 3l containers of 12% for the hot tub.
posted by nobeagle at 11:32 AM on September 25, 2015 [1 favorite]


/me crosses nobeagle off the list...
posted by Etrigan at 12:08 PM on September 25, 2015 [4 favorites]


/me crosses nobeagle off list too.
posted by beagle at 4:01 PM on September 25, 2015 [10 favorites]


I'm just disappointed that John Kenneth Fisher's advice wasn't used.


Obviously you missed the ask metafilter thread, "I found a lump of meat on my patio, attached to a deflated balloon. Can I eat this?"
posted by sebastienbailard at 6:29 PM on September 25, 2015 [1 favorite]


If we're talking TV rather than book publishing, I've always heard the main reason why you never include a spec script for the show you're trying to be hired for with the rest of your spec scripts is because the showrunners can't read it for legal reasons.

I'm a TV writer. This is 100% correct. I've refused to read friend's spec scripts when they were for a show I worked on. It is entirely for legal reasons.


This has not been my experience in Hollywood - mostly the reason you don't submit a spec of a show to the show itself is because you're pretty much guaranteed your episode won't be as good as what they'd write, so you're immediately fighting uphill. Better to show them something they won't be as immediately critical of. Like everything in Hollywood, though, there are exceptions -- I can think of two writers who got hired by shows off specs of those shows. This was many years ago, though.

The other reason is showrunners just generally don't want to read specs of any show anymore. Their only use is now for submissions to diversity programs. Showrunners prefer features, plays, or most favorably, spec pilots. There are a couple outliers, but nearly every writer looking for a TV job in Hollywood now focuses on writing pilots.
posted by incessant at 6:34 PM on September 25, 2015


As for SCREAM QUEENS...

I know I've emailed the link to scarabic's advice to writer friends dozens of times over the years, and I've had it emailed to me a few times too. "Hey, look at this! I gotta find some place to use this!" That kind of thing. It's definitely a known resource around town. I've only used it in a screenplay once (and more the method, not the actual language) but the movie never got made. (sad face, for a variety of reasons)
posted by incessant at 6:42 PM on September 25, 2015


I was just watching Scream Queens. Once I saw the offending scene I came here to check whether anyone had mentioned it.

Here's the actual quote from the show, for comparison:
"Here's what you should do. Pulverize her teeth, burn off her fingerprints, and disfigure her face. Once her body is unrecognizable, we can create an incision on her inner thigh and drain out all of her bodily fluids. That'll give us more time to deconstruct the body."
"Ew! What?!"
"Because truly grinding down a body takes a lot of work. You need a really good food processor, and you run the risk of fouling the plumbing, which is why you should only do it if you know how to clear out meat and bones from a drainpipe. Each of these plans has its drawbacks."
It's a clear copy-and-paste, but it skips over some of scarabic's details, which makes the resulting speech barely even coherent. (The screenwriter skipped over the initial mention of flushing the body down the drain, so the reference to plumbing comes out of nowhere, and the character describes what sounds like only one plan yet then says that each of these plans has its drawbacks.)
posted by painquale at 9:53 AM on September 26, 2015 [3 favorites]


The screenwriter skipped over the initial mention of flushing the body down the drain, so the reference to plumbing comes out of nowhere

Huh, weird. This was copy-and-pasted by Dorothy Sewers.
posted by Namlit at 10:55 AM on September 26, 2015


I wouldn't necessarily lay that excision at the screenwriter's feet, but I haven't actually seen it.
posted by ODiV at 7:48 PM on September 26, 2015


My favorite part of scarabic's comment is that opening line:

First, be smart from the very beginning

And the fact that it was immediately followed by Stan Chin's comment:

Okay. Awkward.

It really captures that moment where people are just sort of shooting the breeze, talking about half-assed vague hypotheticals, and then someone sweeps in with a totally over the top, long-winded response. (I'm totally guilty of doing this, incidentally.) That combined with the perfect follow up comment is what makes it such a classic askme answer to me.

But also, I love reading true crime stories and watching shows that involve gruesome murders (like Hannibal), and now I write fanfic in which I come up with gruesome murder scenes, so um, I may or may not be a deeply disturbed individual, but at the very least I'm pretty immune to this stuff, and at the same time I can see why other people may not be cool with it.
posted by litera scripta manet at 9:43 PM on September 27, 2015 [2 favorites]


« Older Most/Least Active Tab?   |   Bass guitar comment Newer »

You are not logged in, either login or create an account to post comments